Samuel van Hulstyn (*1828) and Johanna Kroeger (*1831)

Samuel van Hulstyn/Hulstijn, son of a veterinarian, went to the nautical college in Amsterdam. Having completed the studies, he went as second steersman to the Dutch Indies.   Samuel must have settled in Batavia. He meets his future wife, Johanna Kroeger, soon after arrival.
Johanna Kroeger was born at Padang, on the west coast of Sumatra (halfway north-south, near the equator). She was the daughter of Petrus Johannes Kroeger and an (as yet) anonymous native lady. Malayan traits are present in many of the descendants. She lived, with her sister Josephina, since ~1842 in Samarang.
A description of the scene of their lives can be found in Batavia in the 19th century.

Children in Batavia: 1852 Alida Maria (+1873 Batavia), 1855 Johanna Josephina (+1929), 1857 Samuel (a Samuel vH dies 1913 in Padang...), 1864 Gustaaf Adolf (+1897 Meester Cornelis), 1865 Henriette Elisabeth.
Why did Samuel and Johanna marry in 1858, in Samarang, where they lived, only after the 3rd child was born? It was quite common that european men lived unmarried with inland women; children might later be legitimatised through marriage, or "disappeared in the kampong" (de Jong, 1998, p.261). Or is the date (taken from the genealogy Naessens) wrong? Johanna was half european, but likely had the looks of an inland woman.

It appears that the entire family van Hulstyn (i.e., Samuels mother and her children) have gone to the Dutch East Indies, too, soon after father Petrus had died (in 1848). The database "roosjeroos" shows the death records of his brothers and sisters, in the Dutch Indies. 

In the Indies, Samuel climbed up the ships ranks. He sailed on ships of the company "E.C.Wermuth and C.S.van Heeckeren & Co.", in Samarang. The first mentioning in newspapers, in 1854, is as "gezagvoerder" (~captain) on the sailing ship Biniang Anem (see newspaper clipping). In 1857 he became captain and was on sailing ships into 1858.
In December 1858, "The Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company" (a company later renamed to just P&O) sold the mail steamer "Lady Mary Wood" to Wermuth and van Heeckeren. That ship had been built in 1842 to quickly and reliably transport post and passengers and had seen much of the world. Wermuth and van Heeckeren & Co saw in this ship possibilities of that nature for the Dutch Indies. Samuel brings that steamer, as captain, from Hong Kong to Samarang. The steam vessel was then renamed the "Oenarang".
It was registerd with several owners (Campo, 2002; p.43), among them Samuel. He stayed in command of that ship several years and made numerous trips Batavia-Samarang-Surabaya, but also to other ports in Nederlands Indië. The ship was sold in 1862/63. The newspapers in Nederlands Indië published all departures and arrivals of ships in the archipelago as well as further information on ships and shipping. Several of the newspaper clippings reporting the ship's whereabouts have been collected in "SvH 1857-1862". In that period, he also did shipments on his own account. The "Straits Times" (Singapore) writes on 01-08-1863 that the dutch steamer "Oenarang" has arrived with passengers in that important harbour in the far-east.

Samuel became, in ~1864, "Marine Superintendant" ("Hoofdagent") for the "Nederlands Indische Stoomvaart Maatschappij" (NISM). This NISM was a british owned dutch flag company, a subsidiary of the British India Steam Navigation Company (BI) founded by the scotsman William Mackinnon.

On the NISM, the BI, and the background
BI's progress in the next decade [the 1870's] was further eastwards. Entry into the Dutch East Indies internal trade was achieved by the formation in 1865 of a Dutch flag company, the "Netherlands India Steam Navigation Company" (NISM) and a connection with China was made in 1868, in conjunction with Messageries Maritimes of France. There was also westward expansion, BI taking a share of the Moslem pilgrim traffic to Jeddah from 1869 [on]. .... The first 'Home Line' (in BI parlance a service to and from the United Kingdom) was inaugurated in 1874, to take advantage of the opening of the Suez Canal. [Text taken from the P&O company history; P&O (Peninsular and Oriental....) later took over BI.]
This NISM tried to infringe on the dominance of pure dutch trade and shipping in the East Indian archipelago (Munro, 2003, p.77).

And, extracted from the Sydney Morning Herald of 16 September 1874 (because of new a contract of the NISM with the Australian Government): The Netherlands India Steam Navigation Company (NISM) has its head quarters in the island of Java. In the year 1866 this company entered into a contract with the Dutch Government to keep up steam communication with its setllements in the Eastern Archipelago, being paid a fixed rate per mile, besides enjoying the privilige of a monopoly of the Government traffic. In illustration of the sources of the company and the enormous expansion of trade between these settlements, arising from the establishment of regular steam communication, we may mention that their fleet consisted in 1866 of ten steamers only, whilst in 1874 they had eighteen of larger tonnage, and were building (out of profits) five new vessels, of which four were to be 12-knot boats. Although they sail under the Dutch flag, the Government contracts being given only to national contractors, this company is allied to the British India Company.
    On the new contract of 1874: In the new joint venture of the Australia Steam Navigation Company (ASNC) and the NISM, the ASNC would perform half the service and the NISM the other half. The shares were held in both by nearly the same proprietary, and in these companies Mr Mackinnon of Glasgow, Mr. Fraser of Batavia (NISM) and Captain Eldred of Sydney (ASNC), are leading spirits.


Soon the new company bought ships. The "Almanak voor Nederlandsch Indië" for 1865 indicates 5 ships of which Samuel is owner
(marked orange in the table), together with others, among them Fraser (boss of the NISM) and P. Landberg, a trader in Batavia, who had used Samuel's service of the Oenarang, and who earlier had a company together with Theodorus Jacometti. The second ship has the name of his just born daughter!
The NISM was connected, of course, to the britisch shipping network. Samuel operated shippings out of Surabaya, Samarang and Batavia with ships of the NISM. He also deputised for Alexander Fraser, the boss of the NISM.
The government in the Dutch Indies had terminated its contract with the shipping company "Cores de Vries" and now expected the NISM to establish a good passenger and postal network in the Indies (de Jong, p.322).

In 1867 Samuel announced a "vendutie" in front of his house in Batavia. Why was that?
Did he move to Samarang for the NISM? Or did he just move to a new (and likely larger) house?
It must have been at that time (~1870), that a painting of daughter Henriette Elisabeth was made.

Samuel regularly makes announcements in the newspapers (see, e.g., the Java Bode of 16-07-1872).

Under Samuels lead, the shipping, which started off with 10 steamers, was considerably increased to 18 larger boats in 1874. The NISM flourished and he became a well-respected man.

In 1873, The Netherlands had declared war on the state of Antsjin/Acheh on Northern Sumatra. The Antsjins were ever more active in piracy and the dutch government had decided to put an end to this. Soldiers were brought in from The Netherlands and the NISM did some of the transport for the Acheh wars (wikipedia: Atjeh oorlog). Soon also casualties had to be transported out of Acheh.

In Samarang, Samuel engaged himself in war-related wellfare. He became an essential person in the local Red Cross. When soldiers were shipped to and from Atsjin/Acheh because of the war there, he tried to ameliorate the suffering (see SvH helps in various ways). He was considerate for the wounded soldiers. As of about 1873, guns had obatined a much larger firing power (de Jong, p.328).
In all, he was, also for that, in high esteem so that at some point the honour of becoming "Ridder in de Orde van de Nederlandse Leeuw" was bestowed on him.
The photo must have been taken after he received this award (from KITLV).
But the goal of the Ducth Goverment with these wars changed and gradually the aim became to end the independence of Acheh. However, the local people were fierce fighters and these wars continued until 1914.

The NISM prospered, as described in the text box. The extent of the shipping can be gleaned from, e.g., the schedule offered by the NISM published on 15 February 1877, for the two weeks thereafter, servicing harbours on Java and Sumatra, Singapore, harbours in East Australia, as well as Bali and Makassar.

There are two items in the newspapers showing that Samuel and the family went by ship from town to town on Java. In 1876 the family travelled together as a family (with servant) and in 1877 the ladies went back.

In 1877, Samuel was also nominated in a committee to study how to exploit central Africa.

Gradually, it was Samuel who managed the NISM together with Alexander Fraser (see Munro, p.130). BI had further plans with NISM, also because the company now made profits (Munro, p.138). But in 1877 Fraser retired. Samuel was then (at the age of 49) nominated in his place to run the company. By then he must have relocated with the family to Batavia.

However, Samuel became seriously ill. He asked for a leave to return to The Netherlands (Munro, p.139) and went there with his family. But Samuel did not recover. He died in 1879 in The Hague. The obituary of Samuel was published in the Java Bode of 12 June 1879.
[The newspaper clippings mentioned and other information have been collected, for Samuel's years as captain in SvH 1857-1862, for the NISM period in SvH NISM.]
 

The widow Johanna Kroeger (1879-1913).

After Samuels death, Johanna returned to Ned.-Indië. Did she then go and visit Padang, her birthplace? The newspaper clip is not definite, it informs the reader that "Mrs the widow van Hulstijn and 1 daughter" go there. But who else would go to Padang?
In 1882, daughter Henriette married Albert Willem Azon Jacometti, whose father was in the trading business in Batavia. Father Albert Jacometti must have known father Samuel personally before that, because Albert did lots of shipments for his trade. Moreover, both families lived at the Koningsplein.

As co-manager of the NISM, Samuel had been "guarantor" in the contract with the Government in Nederlandsch Indië. The risk he ran as guarantor was compensated by a reimbursement of f 1500 per year.
After Samuel's death, the government asked the NISM to name a new guarantor. However, Samuels heirs regarded this guarantorship as part of his rights and stated that the heirs followed as guarantor. This led to a court case in 1883 (in The Hague), which was a rather complex affair, because the NISM had already named a new guarantor, who also had accepted. Apparently, the case came out positive for the heirs. They must have received a financial compensation, because Samuel's wife Johanna started to buy real estate not too much thereafter.

How did Johanna and the others experience the Krakatoa eruption in the summer of 1883?

Johanna Kroeger managed the possessions amassed by Samuel. This activity was twofold.
  I. She rented out several houses, among them houses in Tanabang, in Salemba, in Buitenzorg, in Bidara Tjina, and one on the Koningsplein (the one she lived in originally). The collection of announcements can be seen in Wed. van Hulstijn houses for rent.
  II. She bought in 1883, soon after the mentioned court case had been settled to her advantage, two lots through authorised males (women could still not legally act by themselves in the 19th century). In 1887 she sells a lot (Bataviaasch Nieuwsblad 18870926) with a stone warehouse to the lawyers A.T. Mees and A.W. Jacometti, the latter being her son-in-law. As of that year, 1887, she rather sells real estate. She must have defrayed the living costs from the possessions. In 1894, she also sells real estate to her other daughter, J.J. van Hulstyn. The advertisements of these activities, in which she always uses her maiden name, are collected (probably incompletely) in JMMK 1880-1913.

Johanna died in Batavia in 1913.

Back to the genealogy of SHJK.

Campo, J.N.F.M., 2002. "Engines of Empire: Steamshipping and State Formation in Colonial Indonesia"; Hilversum, Verloren; ISBN 90-6550-738-8.
de Jong, J.J.P. 1998, "De Waaier van het Fortuin - De Nederlanders in Azië en de Indonesiche Archipel", Sdu uitgevers, ISBN 90-12-08974-3
Munro, J. Forbes, 2003. "Maritime Enterprise and Empire: Sir William Mckinnon....", Boydell Press

The photo of Samuel van Hulstijn is part of the "special collections" of the University of Leiden at the KITLV.
The clippings from newspapers in the Dutch Indies have been obtained through the database at http://kranten.kb.nl
Disclaimer: I have not been able to find those who perhaps have the rights of the reproduced familynews, civil announcements and advertisements; I call on those to contact me.

(2014.07.13)   hn33m.html